Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has been implicated as a target for antibody-mediated immune attack in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) which has been used extensively as an experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS). We have screened cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 30 patients with MS, 30 with other neurological diseases (OND) and 30 with tension headache for anti-MOG antibodies of IgG isotype by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Such antibodies were detected in CSF from seven of the patients with MS, compared to two with OND and one with tension headache. No anti-MOG IgG antibodies were demonstrable in plasma. Antibody specificity was confirmed by Western blot immunostaining. Antibody levels were higher in MS compared to OND and tension headache. No correlation was observed between anti-MOG IgG antibodies and total IgG levels in CSF. The significance of anti-MOG antibodies demonstrated in MS CSF remains to be defined.