Longitudinal changes of day-time and night-time gross motor activity in clinical responders and non-responders of major depression

World J Biol Psychiatry. 2009;10(4):276-84. doi: 10.3109/15622970701403081.


Psychomotor retardation (PR) is among the most important features of depression. This study investigates the development of day- and night-time as well as intensity and quantity of circadian motor activity during a 4-week course of treatment among 27 patients with depression compared to 27 healthy controls. A diagnosis of major depression was made using SCID. Motor activity was continuously measured with an actigraph during the study and clinical course of depression with HAM-D-21. Motor activity was described as the quantity and intensity of movements during day- and night- time. Clinically improved patients had significantly intensified movements after 4 weeks, compared to subjects with <50% improvement on HAM-D. While the measures of day-time level of movements captured the clinical improvement of depression, clinical improvement was not reflected by the night-time measurements. This study demonstrates that the separated analysis of level and quantity of movements supports a better understanding of the nature of psychomotor retardation during depression. The subdivision in day- and night-time activity objectively measured with actigraphy captures distinct patterns of motor activity and represents prognostic factors in the treatment outcome of depression. The study also highlights the importance of studying the intensity of movements separately from the quantity of movements in relation to treatment outcome.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Actigraphy
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis
  • Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Circadian Rhythm / drug effects*
  • Citalopram / therapeutic use*
  • Cyclohexanols / therapeutic use*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / drug therapy*
  • Dibenzothiazepines / therapeutic use*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motor Activity / drug effects*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / drug therapy
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride


  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Cyclohexanols
  • Dibenzothiazepines
  • Citalopram
  • Quetiapine Fumarate
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride