Although many children develop frequent infections, only a few have an underlying immune disorder. Children with dysfunction of the immune system develop frequent infections and/or recurrent, persistent, severe, and rare infections. The aim of this review is to provide to the clinician a valuable tool for recognizing any 'discords' of the 'immune-system symphonic orchestra'. By following a reverse route, it will be possible to brighten up the dark and winding road of immunodeficiencies and identify the exact point of immune dysfunction. This is fundamental and crucial to perceive etiologic management and subsequently achieve the best for these young patients and their families.