We present the results of active case ascertainment of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). This study included a sample of urban schoolchildren attending 1st to 4th grade elementary school and their mothers. Out of 912 mothers, 575 (63.04%) participated in the interview. Prenatal alcohol consumption was admitted by 15.47% and binge drinking by 3.13% of interviewed mothers. We evaluated 466 (51.09%) schoolchildren for signs of FAS or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) using revised Institute of Medicine (IOM) diagnostic criteria. Nineteen students had features consistent with FAS or PFAS. The observed prevalence of FAS is 3 children and of PFAS is 16 children among 466 students, based on 51% participation rate. The estimated prevalence of FAS is 6.44/1000, of PFAS 34.33/1000 and overall prevalence of FAS/PFAS 40.77/1000. This is the first study of FAS prevalence in Croatia and as far as we are aware the second study in Europe.
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