GRACE, TIMI, Zwolle and CADILLAC risk scores--do they predict 5-year outcomes after ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated invasively?

Int J Cardiol. 2011 Apr 1;148(1):70-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.10.026. Epub 2009 Nov 18.


Background: GRACE, TIMI, Zwolle, and CADILLAC are risk scores designed for predicting short-term outcome after acute coronary syndromes. The aim of our study was to test their utility for a prognosis of 5-year survival in a "real-life" population of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary interventions (pPCI).

Methods: Our registry consisted of consecutive patients with STEMI treated with pPCI. Five-year follow-up was performed with all-cause mortality as the end-point.

Results: Out of 505 patients (mean age 58.6±11.3 years) 32 died during the first 30 days (6.3%) and an additional 74 within 5 years (15.6%). PCI was successful in 95.2% (n=481). Prognostic values (c statistics) for predicting 5-year mortality equaled: 0.742 (CI 0.69-0.79) for the GRACE risk score, 0.727 (CI 0.67-0.78) for TIMI, 0.72 (CI 0.67-0.77) for Zwolle, and 0.687 (CI 0.63-0.74) for CADILLAC. In a univariate analysis all the scores were associated with the 5-year outcome.

Conclusions: GRACE, TIMI, and Zwolle risk scores predicted well 5-year all-cause mortality in patients with STEMI treated with pPCI. Our data show that the usefulness of initial bedside risk assessment can be further extended for long-term follow-up.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / mortality
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / therapy*
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis*
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Registries
  • Research Design / standards*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Treatment Outcome