Background: A clustering of metabolic risk factors increases the likelihood of cardiovascular diseases. This study reports the metabolic risk profiles and the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and associated factors among Vietnamese adults in Ho Chi Minh City.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of adults aged 25-64 years in Ho Chi Minh City in 2005. Metabolic risk factors, including central obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated total cholesterol, and raised blood pressure, were collected to estimate their prevalence and association with socioeconomic and health-related behavioral risk factors. Multivariate logistic models were performed to examine the associations between socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors and the odds of having metabolic risk factors.
Results: The prevalence of individual risk components was: 28.9% high blood pressure, 18.3% central obesity, 16.8% high total cholesterol, and 6.4% high fasting glucose. There were significant gender differences in central obesity and high blood pressure. The prevalence of metabolic risk cluster (two or more risk factors) was 17.0% in men and 17.6% in women. The metabolic risk cluster appeared earlier in men, but women showed higher rates at older ages. Increasing age and household wealth were associated with the metabolic risk cluster across both genders, but additional risk factors in men were smoking in the past and in women education level and sitting and reclining time.
Conclusions: Strategies to prevent metabolic risk factors through the prevention of abdominal obesity must be established for young adults and should include promoting physical activity, healthy eating, and preventing alcohol abuse and tobacco use.