Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis (BVC) is a major cause of economic loss to the cattle industries in different parts of the world. Camplylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv), the main causative agent of BVC, is highly adapted to the genital tract of cattle and is transmitted by carrier bulls. However, infertility and abortions can also be caused by the intestinal pathogens C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), and C. jenuni, which are not venereally transmitted. Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, caused by Cfv associated with lowered fertility, embryo mortality and abortion, repeated returns to service, reduced pregnancy rates and extended calving intervals, has the highest prevalence in developing countries where natural breeding in cattle is widely practised. The epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis of the disease have been the subject of previous reviews. The main focus of this review is to highlight the epidemiology of this disease with particular reference to geographical distribution and recent advances in molecular diagnostic techniques. It is hoped that further research interest of scientists will be stimulated with a view to finding lasting solutions to the reproductive problems associated with the disease for better livestock productivity, particularly in developing endemic countries.
© 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.