X-linked deafness is a rare cause of hereditary isolated hearing impairment estimated as at least 1% or 2% of the non-syndromic hearing loss. To date, four loci for DFN have been identified and only one gene, POU3F4 responsible for DFN3, has been cloned. In males, DFN3 is characterized by a progressive deafness associated with perilymphatic gusher at stapes surgery and with a characteristic inner ear malformation. The phenotype of eight independent females carrying POU3F4 anomalies is defined, and a late-onset hearing loss is found in three patients. Only one has an inner ear malformation. No genotype/phenotype correlation is identified.