Clinical presentation and initial management of black men and white men with prostate cancer in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS cohort study

Br J Cancer. 2010 Jan 19;102(2):249-54. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605461. Epub 2009 Nov 24.


Background: In the United States, Black men have a higher risk of prostate cancer and worse survival than do White men, but it is unclear whether this is because of differences in diagnosis and management. We re-examined these differences in the United Kingdom, where health care is free and unlikely to vary by socioeconomic status.

Methods: This study is a population-based retrospective cohort study of men diagnosed with prostate cancer with data on ethnicity, prognostic factors, and clinical care. A Delphi panel considered the appropriateness of investigations and treatments received.

Results: At diagnosis, Black men had similar clinical stage and Gleason scores but higher age-adjusted prostate-specific antigen levels (geometric mean ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15-1.73). Black men underwent more investigations and were more likely to undergo radical treatment, although this was largely explained by their younger age. Even after age adjustment, Black men were more likely to undergo a bone scan (odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). The Delphi analysis did not suggest differential management by ethnicity.

Conclusions: This UK-based study comparing Black men with White men found no evidence of differences in disease characteristics at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, nor of under-investigation or under-treatment in Black men.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Blacks
  • Cohort Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / ethnology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • United Kingdom
  • Whites


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen