Background: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation for stenotic lesions of renal arteries and other branches of the aorta in Takayasu's arteritis have been reported to show good outcomes. However, this form of therapy has been reported in few cases with pulmonary artery involvement.
Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this interventional treatment for pulmonary stenosis due to Takayasu's arteritis.
Methods: A total of 4 patients (3 female and 1 male, ages 30-40 yrs) with Takayasu's pulmonary arteritis underwent percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty and stent implantation and were followed up for 1 to 4 years.
Results: One patient underwent balloon angioplasty alone, 3 patients underwent balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. The stenoses were relieved acutely, oxygen saturation improved immediately due to improvement in lung perfusion and relief of dyspnea. The pressure gradient fell from 58.3 +/- 8.7 mm Hg to 14 +/- 3.2 mm Hg and mean pulmonary arterial pressure decreased from 48.5 +/- 12.0 mm Hg to 37.3 +/- 6.0 mm Hg. At a follow-up period of 34.5 +/- 15.8 months, the patient with balloon angioplasty alone developed a recurrence of symptoms 18 months after the procedure. The other 3 patients continued to be asymptomatic and the stent remained patent without restenosis after the procedure.
Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent implantation is a safe and effective treatment in patients with pulmonary stenosis caused by Takayasu's arteritis.