Clomiphene citrate and enclomiphene for the treatment of hypogonadal androgen deficiency

Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 Dec;18(12):1947-55. doi: 10.1517/13543780903405608.


Hypogonadism has a number of important clinical consequences related to androgen deficiency and impaired spermatogenesis. The cause of this condition is multifactorial and can result from hypothalamic, pituitary or gonadal dysfunction as well as factors that affect hormonal signaling along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. While testosterone replacement is the most common treatment, it can paradoxically lead to infertility, and may be a less physiologic therapy for patients with secondary hypogonadism due to pituitary dysfunction. Clomiphene citrate, and its derivatives, may allow for restoration of gonadal function by restoring physiologic pituitary function in a subset of patients with hypogonadism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / deficiency*
  • Clomiphene / analogs & derivatives*
  • Clomiphene / pharmacokinetics
  • Clomiphene / pharmacology
  • Clomiphene / therapeutic use*
  • Enclomiphene*
  • Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / complications
  • Hypogonadism / drug therapy*
  • Hypogonadism / epidemiology
  • Hypogonadism / etiology
  • Hypogonadism / physiopathology
  • Infertility, Male / complications
  • Infertility, Male / drug therapy
  • Male
  • Pituitary Gland / drug effects*
  • Pituitary Gland / physiopathology


  • Androgens
  • Estrogen Antagonists
  • Clomiphene
  • Enclomiphene