Daily consumption of milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, minerals and vitamins reduces cell adhesion molecules in healthy children

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb;21(2):113-20. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.08.007. Epub 2009 Nov 25.


Background and aims: Several studies have suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals have beneficial effects on lipid profile and systemic inflammation in adults.

Methods and results: We examined the effects of a daily intake of milk enriched with longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and low in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) for 5 months, on several cardiovascular (CVD) risk biomarkers in healthy children aged 8-14 years. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, a total of 107 children of both genders were assigned to two study groups: 1) a supplemented group (SG, n=53) who consumed 0.6 L/day of an enriched dairy product, and 2) a control group (CG, n=54) who consumed 0.6 L/day of standard whole milk. Both groups consumed the dairy drinks for 5 months, in addition to their usual diet. Serum levels of adhesion molecules as indices of vascular endothelial cell activation were assessed in both groups at 0 and 5 months as well as white blood cell counts, lipid profile, serum proteins, total serum calcium, 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, insulin and adiponectin. In the enriched dairy drink supplemented group, adhesion molecules E-selectin and ICAM-1 as well as lymphocyte levels decreased while plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and serum calcium concentrations increased. In the control group, serum total protein, transferrin, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin concentrations decreased.

Conclusion: The consumption of a milk enriched with fish oil, oleic acid, minerals and vitamins reduced indices of endothelial cell activation in the studied group of healthy children.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Child
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Dairy Products / analysis
  • Double-Blind Method
  • E-Selectin / blood*
  • Fatty Acids / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Fish Oils / administration & dosage*
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood*
  • Male
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Oleic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Risk Factors
  • Trace Elements / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*


  • E-Selectin
  • Fatty Acids
  • Fish Oils
  • Trace Elements
  • Vitamins
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Oleic Acid
  • Cholesterol