The epidermal growth factor repeats of the Notch receptor are extensively glycosylated with three different O-glycans. O-Fucosylation and elongation by the glycosyltransferase Fringe have been well studied and shown to be essential for proper Notch signaling. In contrast, biosynthesis of O-glucose and O-N-acetylglucosamine is less well understood. Recently, the isolation of the Drosophila mutant rumi has shown that absence of O-glucose impairs Notch function. O-Glucose is further extended by two contiguous alpha1,3-linked xylose residues. We have identified two enzymes of the human glycosyltransferase 8 family, now named GXYLT1 and GXYLT2 (glucoside xylosyltransferase), as UDP-d-xylose:beta-d-glucoside alpha1,3-d-xylosyltransferases adding the first xylose. The enzymes are specific for beta-glucose-terminating acceptors and UDP-xylose as donor substrate. Generation of the alpha1,3-linkage was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Activity on a natural acceptor could be shown by in vitro xylosylation of a Notch fragment expressed in a UDP-xylose-deficient cell line and in vivo by co-expression of the enzymes and the Notch fragment in insect cells followed by mass spectrometric analysis of peptide fragments.