Historically, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has been a major focus of urologic practice and surgery. But a simplistic causal relationship among prostatic enlargement, progressive obstruction, lower urinary tract symptoms, retention, and complications of retention has been challenged by recognition of the incomplete overlap of prostatic enlargement with symptoms and obstruction. The result has been a greater focus on symptoms than prostatic enlargement and a shift from surgery to medical treatment. Therefore, the question can be asked whether BPH per se, the glandular enlargement as it contributes to bladder dysfunction, or hyperplastic enlargement as a biomarker for generalized lower urinary tract dysfunction are concerns. This article addresses these issues.