We report a case of a fatal rupture of a previously unruptured giant aneurysm of the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (ICA), which occurred after an extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass and the partial occlusion of the ICA. Interim angiography showed retrograde filling of the proximal middle cerebral artery to the aneurysm. There have been four previously reported cases of giant aneurysms rupturing after treatment with an EC-IC bypass and carotid ligation, and it appears likely that a change in pressure/flow dynamics produced by the bypass may have been the cause. The technique of carotid ligation with an EC-IC bypass is used frequently to treat unclippable intracranial aneurysms, and the resulting hemodynamic changes need to be considered carefully to prevent this type of complication. To minimize hemodynamic stress on the aneurysm, we suggest that 1) the bypass caliber should be as small as possible consistent with sufficient cerebral blood flow after ICA occlusion, and 2) complete ICA occlusion should be performed as soon as possible after the bypass.