Approximately one in three Americans has some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for one of every 2.8 deaths in the United States in 2004. Two of the major risk factors for CVD are advancing age and obesity. An intervention able to positively impact both aging and obesity, such as caloric restriction (CR), may prove extremely useful in the fight against CVD. CR is the only environmental or lifestyle intervention that repeatedly has been shown to increase maximum life span and to retard aging in laboratory rodents. This article reviews evidence that CR in nonhuman primates and people has a positive effect on risk factors for CVD.