Review: Male systemic lupus erythematosus: a review of sex disparities in this disease

Lupus. 2010 Feb;19(2):119-29. doi: 10.1177/0961203309350755. Epub 2009 Nov 27.


Although males with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) represent 4-22% of all SLE patients, it may not be appropriate that these cases should be subordinated to females with SLE in terms of most health-related issues. Over the past few decades, some distinctive features of male lupus have been observed with regard to genetic and environmental aspects of sex differences, clinical features, and outcome. In addition, recent insights into sex disparities in this disease have brought forth a few plausible and novel pathogenetic hypotheses. This review discusses these findings and sex disparities in SLE that appear to be especially noteworthy and pertinent to our understanding of male SLE.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Sex Factors