To evaluate the clinical course and characteristics of children with chronic neutropenia, we reviewed the charts of all such patients seen at our center during a 13-year period. A total of 50 patients with chronic neutropenia were identified. Three patients had documented congenital neutropenia, and two siblings had cyclic neutropenia. The remaining 45 children had chronic neutropenia of unknown origin. All children except two had a remarkably benign course despite markedly reduced granulocyte counts. Of six girls in this group who had abscess or cellulitis of the labia majora, it was a presenting manifestation in three. Resolution of neutropenia was documented in 23 (62%) of 37 patients for whom follow-up information was available, with a median duration of neutropenia of 19 months. No differences were evident between patients with positive antineutrophil antibody test results and those in whom the test yielded negative results or was not performed. Chronic neutropenia in childhood is a relatively uncommon entity, characterized by a benign course and eventual resolution in the majority of patients.