The inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not properly regulated in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the lung epithelium of individuals with wild-type CF transmembrane conductance regulator, lipid rafts containing CF transmembrane conductance regulator are rapidly formed in response to P. aeruginosa infection, and this response is closely linked to resistance to infection and disease. We found these rafts also contained high levels of caveolin-1 and thus examined the sensitivity of cav1 knockout (KO) mice to P. aeruginosa challenge in both acute and chronic P. aeruginosa infection models. We found that cav1 KO mice had increased sensitivity to P. aeruginosa infection, as represented by an increased mortality rate, elevated bacterial burdens recovered from lungs and spleens, and elevated inflammatory responses. These findings correlated with the decreased ability of cav1-deficient neutrophils to phagocytose P. aeruginosa. In addition, P. aeruginosa colonized cav1 KO mice much better compared with the wild-type controls in a model of chronic infection, indicting an important contribution of Cav-1 to innate host immunity to P. aeruginosa infection in the setting of both acute pneumonia and chronic infection typical of CF.