ADP-ribosylation of a protein in human fibroblasts treated with partially purified Clostridium difficile toxin B was previously reported. Here we show that the same protein was ADP-ribosylated also in human fibroblasts exposed to supernatant from a C. difficile strain producing neither toxin A nor toxin B. Furthermore, in Chinese hamster ovary and in Vero cells, showing toxin B-induced cytopathogenic effect, the protein was not significantly ADP-ribosylated. The results indicate that the ADP-ribosylation is unrelated to the cytopathogenic effect of toxin B. It appears to be caused by another unidentified factor from C. difficile, and the substrate may correspond to a protein modified endogenously in cells exposed to stressful situations. Cellular actin was not ADP-ribosylated by toxin B.