Purpose: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with renal artery pseudoaneurysms (RAPs) to document their clinical presentation, surgical background, and outcome.
Materials and methods: In all, 7 of the 1965 patients who underwent percutaneous stone surgery and 3 of the 25 patients who underwent laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery had a diagnosis of RAP and were treated accordingly. The most common symptom was hematuria, which was classified as early or delayed according to the time of presentation, as mild, moderate, or severe according to the hemodynamics of the patient. In addition, angiographic images were reviewed, and the correlation between the clinical presentation of RAP and its location was investigated.
Results: In the percutaneous stone surgery group, four patients experienced early mild to moderate hematuria and three experienced late moderate hematuria. All of the RAPs were located on the interlobar and arcuate arteries. In the laparoscopic nephron-sparing surgery group, one patient was asymptomatic, with diagnosis of renal-cell cancer recurrence at the 3-month follow-up, and had radical nephrectomy. Two patients presented with delayed moderate hematuria with lesions that were located on the interlobar, arcuate, and segmentary arteries. Two sessions of embolization were sufficient to stop bleeding in one patient with a segmentary artery aneurysm that had unfortunately lost kidney function during follow-up.
Conclusion: There is no predictive factor for patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedure yet, but laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for tumors localized in the central portion of kidney may end up with RAP especially if no adjuvant sealing agents are used. The outcome of RAPs depends primarily on early recognition and a high index of suspicion, which facilitates correct diagnosis and appropriate management. Selective angiography and embolization together is the gold standard, both for diagnosis and treatment.