A nationwide statistical survey of 4098 dialysis facilities was conducted at the end of 2007, and 4052 facilities (98.88%) participated. The number of patients undergoing dialysis at the end of 2007 was determined to be 275 242, an increase of 10 769 patients (4.1%) compared with that at the end of 2006.The number of dialysis patients per million at the end of 2007 was 2154. The crude death rate of dialysis patients at the end of 2007 from the end of 2006 was 9.4%. The mean age of new patients begun on dialysis was 66.8 years and the mean age of the entire dialysis patient population was 64.9 years. For the primary diseases of new patients begun on dialysis, the percentages of patients with diabetic nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis were 43.4% and 23.8%, respectively. The percentages of facilities that achieved the control standard of endotoxin concentration in the dialysate solution of <0.05 EU/mL and those that achieved a bacterial count of <100 cfu/mL in the dialysate solution, as specified by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy, were 93.6% and 97.4%, respectively. The percentage of patients positive for the hepatitis C virus antibody among the entire dialysis population significantly decreased from 15.95% at the end of 1999 to 9.83% at the end of 2007. The mean hemoglobin concentration in all the dialysis patients at the end of 2007 was 10.27 (+/-1.32, SD) g/dL, which has scarcely changed over the last three years. The numbers of male and female patients with a history of hip fracture were 142.9 and 339.0 per 10 000 dialysis patients, respectively, showing an extremely high prevalence among female patients. A history of hip fracture correlates with a low body mass index, serum albumin concentration, and a history of diabetes. The serum creatinine level of patients upon introduction to dialysis was 8.34 (+/-3.55) mg/dL, and the estimated glomerular filtration rate was 5.43 (+/-3.43) mL/min/1.73 m(2) for the patients who were newly begun on dialysis in 2007.