Collagen, a major extracellular matrix macromolecule, is widely used for biomedical purposes. We investigated the absorption mechanism of low molecular weight collagen hydrolysate (LMW-CH) and its effects on osteoporosis in rats. When administered to Wistar rats with either [(14)C]proline (Pro group) or glycyl-[(14)C]prolyl-hydroxyproline (CTp group), LMW-CH rapidly increased plasma radioactivity. LMW-CH was absorbed into the blood of Wistar rats in the peptide form. Glycyl-prolyl-hydroxyproline tripeptide remained in the plasma and accumulated in the kidney. In both groups, radioactivity was retained at a high level in the skin until 14 days after administration. Additionally, the administration of LMW-CH to ovariectomized stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats increased the organic substance content and decreased the water content of the left femur. Our findings show that LMW-CH exerts a beneficial effect on osteoporosis by increasing the organic substance content of bone.