Peroxisomes are multifunctional organelles with an important role in the generation and decomposition of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this review, the ROS-producing enzymes, as well as the antioxidative defense system in mammalian peroxisomes, are described. In addition, various conditions leading to disturbances in peroxisomal ROS metabolism, such as abnormal peroxisomal biogenesis, hypocatalasemia, and proliferation of peroxisomes are discussed. We also review the role of mammalian peroxisomes in some physiological and pathological processes involving ROS that lead to mitochondrial abnormalities, defects in cell proliferation, and alterations in the central nervous system, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, and aging. Antioxid.