Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2009;18(4):498-500.


The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture / methods*
  • Biofuels / economics
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation of Energy Resources / methods
  • Conservation of Natural Resources* / economics
  • Environment*
  • Environmental Pollution / prevention & control
  • Fertilizers / economics
  • Fossil Fuels / economics
  • Greenhouse Effect / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Pesticides / adverse effects
  • Pesticides / economics


  • Biofuels
  • Fertilizers
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Pesticides