Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae oxidoreductases Bdh1p and Ara1p in the metabolism of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010 Feb;76(3):670-9. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01521-09. Epub 2009 Dec 4.


NAD-dependent butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae reversibly transforms acetoin to 2,3-butanediol in a stereospecific manner. Deletion of BDH1 resulted in an accumulation of acetoin and a diminution of 2,3-butanediol in two S. cerevisiae strains under two different growth conditions. The concentrations of (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol are mostly dependent on Bdh1p activity, while those of (meso)-2,3-butanediol are also influenced by the activity of NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases. One of them has been purified and shown to be d-arabinose dehydrogenase (Ara1p), which converts (R/S)-acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol and (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol. Deletion of BDH2, a gene adjacent to BDH1, whose encoded protein is 51% identical to Bdh1p, does not significantly alter the levels of acetoin or 2,3-butanediol in comparison to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we have expressed Bdh2p with a histidine tag and have shown it to be inactive toward 2,3-butanediol. A whole-genome expression analysis with microarrays demonstrates that BDH1 and BDH2 are reciprocally regulated.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetoin / metabolism*
  • Aerobiosis
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Anaerobiosis
  • Butylene Glycols / metabolism*
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Fermentation
  • Gene Deletion
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Mutation
  • NAD / metabolism
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / enzymology*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / growth & development
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / metabolism*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases / genetics
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases / metabolism


  • Butylene Glycols
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • NAD
  • 2,3-butylene glycol
  • Acetoin
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases
  • D-arabinose dehydrogenase
  • butanediol dehydrogenase