A comprehensive linkage map of the dog genome

Genetics. 2010 Feb;184(2):595-605. doi: 10.1534/genetics.109.106831. Epub 2009 Dec 4.


We have leveraged the reference sequence of a boxer to construct the first complete linkage map for the domestic dog. The new map improves access to the dog's unique biology, from human disease counterparts to fascinating evolutionary adaptations. The map was constructed with approximately 3000 microsatellite markers developed from the reference sequence. Familial resources afforded 450 mostly phase-known meioses for map assembly. The genotype data supported a framework map with approximately 1500 loci. An additional approximately 1500 markers served as map validators, contributing modestly to estimates of recombination rate but supporting the framework content. Data from approximately 22,000 SNPs informing on a subset of meioses supported map integrity. The sex-averaged map extended 21 M and revealed marked region- and sex-specific differences in recombination rate. The map will enable empiric coverage estimates and multipoint linkage analysis. Knowledge of the variation in recombination rate will also inform on genomewide patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and thus benefit association, selective sweep, and phylogenetic mapping approaches. The computational and wet-bench strategies can be applied to the reference genome of any nonmodel organism to assemble a de novo linkage map.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Chromosome Mapping*
  • Dogs / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Loci / genetics
  • Genetic Markers / genetics
  • Genome / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Male
  • Meiosis / genetics
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • Recombination, Genetic
  • X Chromosome / genetics


  • Genetic Markers