Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans stimulate cytokine secretion from human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells differentiated with retinoic acid or dimethylsulfoxide

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Dec;73(12):2600-8. doi: 10.1271/bbb.90410. Epub 2009 Dec 7.


We investigated whether non-pathogenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human commensal opportunistic pathogenic Candida albicans stimulate cytokine responses of human neutrophil-like HL-60 cells pre-treated with either 1 microM retinoic acid or 1.25% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Intact and heat-killed S. cerevisiae enhanced secretion of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-18, MCP-1/CCL2 and TNF-alpha from retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells, accompanied by alterations in mRNA expression of the cytokines. Heat-killed C. albicans promoted secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, while intact C. albicans slightly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta, IL-8 and IL-18. In response to yeast stimuli, retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells generally secreted cytokines more strongly than DMSO-treated HL-60 cells. Gene expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6 and dectin-1 in HL-60 cells were additionally affected by retinoic acid or DMSO and by co-culturing with S. cerevisiae or C. albicans. Our results suggest that both intact and heat-killed S. cerevisiae and C. albicans induce cytokine responses of neutrophils in the intestine, and stimulate host immune function.

MeSH terms

  • Candida albicans / immunology*
  • Candida albicans / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • HL-60 Cells
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neutrophils / cytology
  • Neutrophils / drug effects*
  • Neutrophils / immunology
  • Neutrophils / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / immunology*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Toll-Like Receptors / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • Tretinoin / pharmacology*


  • Cytokines
  • Lectins, C-Type
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • dectin 1
  • Tretinoin
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide