B cell-specific and stimulation-responsive enhancers derepress Aicda by overcoming the effects of silencers

Nat Immunol. 2010 Feb;11(2):148-54. doi: 10.1038/ni.1829. Epub 2009 Dec 6.


Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the generation of antibody memory but also targets oncogenes, among other genes. We investigated the transcriptional regulation of Aicda (which encodes AID) in class switch-inducible CH12F3-2 cells and found that Aicda regulation involved derepression by several layers of positive regulatory elements in addition to the 5' promoter region. The 5' upstream region contained functional motifs for the response to signaling by cytokines, the ligand for the costimulatory molecule CD40 or stimuli that activated the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The first intron contained functional binding elements for the ubiquitous silencers c-Myb and E2f and for the B cell-specific activator Pax5 and E-box-binding proteins. Our results show that Aicda is regulated by the balance between B cell-specific and stimulation-responsive elements and ubiquitous silencers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cytidine Deaminase / genetics*
  • Cytidine Deaminase / immunology
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / genetics*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / immunology
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology*
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin / genetics*
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching / genetics
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching / immunology
  • Immunologic Memory / genetics
  • Immunologic Memory / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Oncogenes / genetics
  • Oncogenes / immunology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / immunology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Silencer Elements, Transcriptional / genetics*
  • Silencer Elements, Transcriptional / immunology
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin / genetics
  • Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin / immunology


  • AICDA (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)
  • Cytidine Deaminase

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE18746