The role of adjuvant chemotherapy following cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer: a prospective comparative trial

J Urol. 1991 Mar;145(3):459-64; discussion 464-7. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5347(17)38368-4.


We assigned 91 patients with deeply invasive, pathological stage P3, P4 or N+ and Mo transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (with or without squamous or glandular differentiation) to adjuvant chemotherapy or to observation after radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. For most patients chemotherapy was planned as 4 courses at 28-day intervals of 100 mg./M.2 cisplatin, 60 mg./M.2 doxorubicin and 600 mg./M.2 cyclophosphamide. A significant delay was shown in the time to progression (p = 0.0010) with 70% of the patients assigned to chemotherapy free of disease at 3 years compared to 46% in the observation group. Median survival time for patients in the chemotherapy group was 4.3 years compared to 2.4 years in the observation group (p = 0.0062). In addition to treatment groups, important prognostic factors included age, gender and lymph node status. The number of involved lymph nodes was the single most important variable. We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma after definitive surgical resection.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy*
  • Cisplatin / administration & dosage
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Cystectomy*
  • Doxorubicin / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Doxorubicin
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cisplatin

Supplementary concepts

  • CISCA protocol