Smoking cessation and severity of weight gain in a national cohort

N Engl J Med. 1991 Mar 14;324(11):739-45. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199103143241106.


Background: Many believe that the prospect of weight gain discourages smokers from quitting. Accurate estimates of the weight gain related to the cessation of smoking in the general population are not available, however.

Methods: We related changes in body weight to changes in smoking status in adults 25 to 74 years of age who were weighed in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I, 1971 to 1975) and then weighed a second time in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (1982 to 1984). The cohort included continuing smokers (748 men and 1137 women) and those who had quit smoking for a year or more (409 men and 359 women).

Results: The mean weight gain attributable to the cessation of smoking, as adjusted for age, race, level of education, alcohol use, illnesses related to change in weight, base-line weight, and physical activity, was 2.8 kg in men and 3.8 kg in women. Major weight gain (greater than 13 kg) occurred in 9.8 percent of the men and 13.4 percent of the women who quit smoking. The relative risk of major weight gain in those who quit smoking (as compared with those who continued to smoke) was 8.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 4.4 to 14.9) in men and 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.7 to 9.1) in women, and it remained high regardless of the duration of cessation. For both sexes, blacks, people under the age of 55, and people who smoked 15 cigarettes or more per day were at higher risk of major weight gain after quitting smoking. Although at base line the smokers weighed less than those who had never smoked, they weighed nearly the same at follow-up.

Conclusions: Major weight gain is strongly related to smoking cessation, but it occurs in only a minority of those who stop smoking. Weight gain is not likely to negate the health benefits of smoking cessation, but its cosmetic effects may interfere with attempts to quit. Effective methods of weight control are therefore needed for smokers trying to quit.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Odds Ratio
  • Parity
  • Pregnancy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Regression Analysis
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Weight Gain*