Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is an endogenous cytokine that induces apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. Here, we show for the first time that lactobacilli induce TRAIL production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treatment with lactobacilli induced TRAIL on the cell surface of PBMC and in culture medium. The TRAIL production induced by lactobacilli partially depends on IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Lactobacilli treatment facilitated NK activity of PBMC against prostate cancer cells. Moreover, TRAIL neutralization antibody efficiently prevented the NK activity. Our results indicate that lactobacilli facilitate NK activity through TRAIL production, and raise the possibility of a new TRAIL-based strategy against malignant tumors.
2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.