Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates

BMC Biol. 2009 Dec 14;7:86. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-7-86.

Abstract

Background: Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how H2A.Z mediates its effects are not entirely understood. However, it is now known that H2A.Z has two protein isoforms in vertebrates, H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2, which are encoded by separate genes and differ by 3 amino acid residues.

Results: We report that H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 are expressed across a wide range of human tissues, they are both acetylated at lysine residues within the N-terminal region and they exhibit similar, but nonidentical, distributions within chromatin. Our results suggest that H2A.Z-2 preferentially associates with H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 compared to H2A.Z-1. The phylogenetic analysis of the promoter regions of H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 indicate that they have evolved separately during vertebrate evolution.

Conclusions: Our biochemical, gene expression, and phylogenetic data suggest that the H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 variants function similarly yet they may have acquired a degree of functional independence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Animals
  • Avian Proteins / genetics
  • Avian Proteins / metabolism
  • Biological Evolution
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chickens
  • Euchromatin / metabolism
  • HeLa Cells
  • Histones / genetics
  • Histones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Methylation
  • Mice
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Species Specificity

Substances

  • Avian Proteins
  • Euchromatin
  • Histones
  • Protein Isoforms
  • RNA, Messenger
  • histone H2A.F-Z