Epidemiological, antigenic and genetic characteristics of seasonal influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2) and B influenza viruses: basis for the WHO recommendation on the composition of influenza vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 northern hemisphere season

Vaccine. 2010 Feb 3;28(5):1156-67. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.11.043. Epub 2009 Dec 9.


Influenza vaccines form an important component of the global response against infections and subsequent illness caused in man by influenza viruses. Twice a year, in February and September, the World Health Organisation through its Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), recommends appropriate influenza viruses to be included in the seasonal influenza vaccine for the upcoming Northern and Southern Hemisphere winters. This recommendation is based on the latest data generated from many sources and the availability of viruses that are suitable for vaccine manufacture. This article gives a summary of the data and background to the recommendations for the 2009-2010 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine formulation.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype* / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype* / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype* / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype* / immunology
  • Influenza B virus* / genetics
  • Influenza B virus* / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines* / genetics
  • Influenza Vaccines* / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines* / therapeutic use
  • Influenza, Human* / epidemiology
  • Influenza, Human* / genetics
  • Influenza, Human* / immunology
  • Influenza, Human* / prevention & control


  • Influenza Vaccines