The beneficial effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) administration following experimental stroke have already been described. Despite several promising characteristics, placenta-derived MSC have not been used in models of focal ischemia. The aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of intravenously transplanted placenta-derived MSC on post-stroke recovery. Permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats. MSC were obtained from the human maternal or fetal placenta and intravenously administered after 24 h (single transplantation) or after 8 h and 24 h (dual transplantation). Sensorimotor deficits were quantified for 60 days using the beam walk test and the modified Neurological Severity Score system. Infarct volume was determined in vivo by means of magnetic resonance imaging on days 1, 8, 29 and 60. Astroglial reactivity was semiquantitatively ascertained within a small and a broad region adjacent to the lesion border. The double infusion of placental MSC was superior to single transplantation in the functional tests. However, a significant difference to the control group in all outcome parameters was observed only for maternally derived MSC. These findings suggest that placental tissue constitutes a promising source for experimental stroke therapies.
2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.