FDA approval of several inhibitors of the VEGF pathway has enabled significant advances in the therapy of cancer and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. However, similar to other therapies, inherent/acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic drugs may occur in patients, leading to disease progression. So far the lack of predictive biomarkers has precluded identification of patients most likely to respond to such treatments. Recent suggest that both tumor and non-tumor (stromal) cell types are involved in the reduced responsiveness to the treatments. The present review examines the role of tumor- as well as stromal cell-derived pathways involved in tumor growth and in refractoriness to anti-VEGF therapies.