CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) promotes prostate cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2010 Feb;21(1):41-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.11.009. Epub 2009 Dec 14.


CCL2 is a chemokine known to recruit monocytes and macrophages to sites of inflammation. A growing body of research suggests CCL2 is progressively overexpressed in tumor beds and may play a role in the clinical progression of solid tumors. Cancer cells derived from several solid tumor types demonstrate functional receptors for CCL2, suggesting this chemokine may achieve tumorigenicity through direct effects on malignant cells; however, a variety of normal host cells that co-exist with cancer in the tumor microenvironment also respond to CCL2. These cells include macrophages, osteoclasts, endothelial cells, T-lymphocytes, and myeloid-derived immune suppressor cells (MDSCs). CCL2 mediated interactions between normal and malignant cells in the tumor microenvironment and plays a multi-faceted role in tumor progression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Survival
  • Chemokine CCL2 / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / physiology
  • Macrophages / physiology
  • Male
  • Models, Biological
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • Osteoclasts / physiology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Receptors, CCR2 / physiology


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Receptors, CCR2