Background: Co-morbid conditions in obese patients contribute to the incidence and severity of major complications after bariatric surgery and significantly increase the cost of the procedure. Previous publications have validated the patient factors that increase the risk of mortality; however, it is currently a rare event. The development of a metabolic acuity score (MAS) to augment the body mass index might allow for accurate preoperative assessment and optimal treatment of patients. The present study has proposed a MAS for decreasing major complications.
Methods: Prospectively collected outcomes of 2416 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 1821) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (n = 595) in a community hospital were evaluated for the incidence of major complications, readmissions, and reoperations. Beginning in August of 2006, 1072 patients were divided into MAS groups of 1-4 according to age, body mass index, weight, history of deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, sleep apnea, diabetes, hypertension, immobility, heart disease, and psychological classification. The acuity groups were compared with each other and with 1344 patients who underwent treatment before the MAS was implemented.
Results: A significant decrease occurred in the readmission rates within 30 days after the MAS was put into practice (8.5% before MAS versus 1.7% after MAS, P <.001) for the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients. The postoperative infection rates were lower after implementing the MAS (3.5% before MAS, .7% after MAS, P <.001). After adjusting for random and fixed effects of covariates, the implementation of the MAS significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative internal hernias, infections, deep vein thrombosis, readmissions, and reoperations.
Conclusion: Recognition of specific patient acuity characteristics through the implementation of MAS and aggressive preoperative and perioperative management led to lower major complication rates and decreased the incidence of readmissions and reoperations after bariatric surgery.