Can the genetics of type 1 and type 2 diabetes shed light on the genetics of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults?

Endocr Rev. 2010 Apr;31(2):183-93. doi: 10.1210/er.2009-0029. Epub 2009 Dec 10.


The pathophysiology of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is considered less understood than its much better characterized counterparts of type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), where its clinical presentation exhibits some features of each of these two main diseases, earning it a reputation as being "type 1.5 diabetes". The etiology of LADA remains unknown, but a genetic component has been implicated from recent reports of T1D and T2D genes playing a role in its pathogenesis. One way to shed much needed light on the classification of LADA is to determine the discrete genetic factors conferring risk to the pathogenesis of this specific phenotype and to determine to what extent LADA shares genetic similarities with T1D and T2D. For instance, no conclusive support for a role of the T1D-associated INS gene has been reported in T2D; conversely, but similarly, no evidence has been found for the role of the T2D-associated genes IDE/HHEX, SLC30A8, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, FTO, and TCF7L2 in T1D. However, and somewhat at odds with current thinking, TCF7L2, the most strongly associated gene with T2D to date, is strongly associated with LADA, a disorder considered by the World Health Organization to be a slowly progressing form of T1D. In this review, we address recent advances in the genetics of T1D and T2D and how such discoveries have in turn shed some light on the genetics of LADA as being potentially at the "genetic intersection" of these two major diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • TCF Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein


  • TCF Transcription Factors
  • TCF7L2 protein, human
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein