Despite improvements in healthcare delivery, mortality rates for high-output fistulae remain unchanged. The pathophysiology and causes of fistulae are reviewed in this article. An overview of the diagnostic procedures to delineate fistulae and underlying bowel disease together with their complications is included. Management of high-output fistulae consists of assessment and stabilization of patients, followed by conservative management by a multidisciplinary team until spontaneous or surgical closure of fistulae.
Keywords: High-output fistulae; nutrition; pathophysiology; somatostatin.