We investigated the association between fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and (1) the biochemical parameters implicated in chronic kidney disorder (CKD)-bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD) and (2) bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with CKD 1-4. C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum phosphate correlated with FGF-23. A significant association was seen between FGF-23 and BMD at the hip.
Introduction: Circulating FGF-23 is elevated in CKD, although the primary stimulus remains unclear. Moreover, it is still unknown whether increase in FGF-23 has a biological effect on bone metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of FGF-23 with (1) the biochemical parameters linked with CKD-bone and mineral disorder (CKD-MBD) and (2) bone mineral density in CKD.
Methods: We studied 145 patients (74 M, 71 F) aged (mean [SD]) 53  years with CKD 1-4. Serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, FGF-23, 25 (OH) vitamin D, 1, 25 (OH)(2) vitamin D, bone turnover markers, CRP were determined. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, femoral neck (FN), forearm, and total hip (TH). Multivariate analysis was undertaken to explore the association between (1) the biochemical variables and FGF-23 and (2) FGF-23 and BMD.
Results: Elevations in FGF-23 occurred in CKD stage 3 compared to CKD stage 1/2, although no significant differences in serum phosphate were observed. Serum phosphate (p<0.001), CRP (p<0.001) and diabetes mellitus (p<0.05) were associated with FGF-23. BMD Z-score was significantly lower at the TH and FN in CKD 4 (p<0.05). A significant association was seen between BMI, FGF-23, bone specific alkaline phosphatase and BMD at the TH (p<0.05).
Conclusions: The data suggest that FGF-23 may be associated with parameters implicated in the complications of CKD. Longitudinal studies are required for further clinical evaluation.