The metabolic fate of red wine and grape juice polyphenols in humans assessed by metabolomics

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Jul;54(7):897-908. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900212.

Abstract

The metabolic impact of polyphenol-rich red wine and grape juice consumption in humans was studied using a metabolomics approach. Fifty-eight men and women participated in a placebo-controlled, double-crossover study in which they consumed during a period of 4 wk, either a polyphenol-rich 2:1 dry mix of red wine and red grape juice extracts (MIX) or only a grape juice extract (GJX). Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected after each intervention. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied for global metabolite profiling, while GC-MS was used for focused profiling of urinary phenolic acids. Urine metabolic profiles after intake of both polyphenol-rich extracts were significantly differentiated from placebo using multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis. A significant 35% increase in hippuric acid excretion (p<0.001) in urine was measured after the MIX consumption as) or only a red grape juice dry extract (GJX). 24-h urine samples were collected after each intervention. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was applied for global metabolite profiling, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for focused profiling of urinary phenolic acids. Urine metabolic profiles after intake of both polyphenol-rich extracts were significantly differentiated from placebo using multilevel partial least squares discriminant analysis (ML-PLS-DA). A significant 35% increase in hippuric acid excretion (p<0.001) in urine was measured after the MIX consumption compared with placebo, whereas no change was found after GJX consumption. GC-MS-based metabolomics of urine allowed identification of 18 different phenolic acids, which were significantly elevated following intake of either extract. Syringic acid, 3- and 4-hydroxyhippuric acid and 4-hydroxymandelic acid were the strongest urinary markers for both extracts. MIX and GJX consumption had a slightly different effect on the excreted phenolic acid profile and on endogenous metabolite excretion, possibly reflecting their different polyphenol composition.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Benzoates / chemistry
  • Benzoates / urine
  • Beverages / analysis*
  • Biomarkers / chemistry
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Biotransformation
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Flavonoids / pharmacokinetics*
  • Flavonoids / urine
  • Fruit / chemistry*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Hypertension / urine
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Mandelic Acids / chemistry
  • Mandelic Acids / urine
  • Metabolomics / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics*
  • Phenols / urine
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Polyphenols
  • Vitis / chemistry*
  • Wine / analysis*
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Benzoates
  • Biomarkers
  • Flavonoids
  • Mandelic Acids
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Polyphenols