Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of hematopoietic cells whose emergence, course, and prognosis is affected by specific recurrent genetic alterations like chromosome aberrations and point mutations, as well as by changes in the expression of certain genes. In the past 2 years, microRNAs (miRNAs)--a novel class of small RNA molecules involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation--have also been shown to be aberrantly expressed in AML. Furthermore, specific miRNA expression patterns were found to be associated with certain genetic and cytogenetic alterations in this disease, and two studies identified miRNAs whose expression levels were predictive of survival. Interestingly, the results of these analyses showed only very limited congruence. This review summarizes published reports on the expression patterns of miRNAs in AML, and discusses possible reasons for the differences in their results.