Phenylethylaminergic mechanisms in attention-deficit disorder

Biol Psychiatry. 1991 Jan 1;29(1):15-22. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(91)90207-3.


Urinary excretion (24-hr) of beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), phenylacetic acid (PAA), phenylalanine (Phe), and p-tyrosine (Tyr), and plasma levels of PAA, Phe, and Tyr were examined in 18 normal children and 26 children diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results indicated that urinary excretion (expressed per g of creatinine) of free and total PEA was significantly lower in the ADHD patients, and plasma levels of Phe and Tyr were also decreased in the ADHD subjects compared with the normal controls.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / urine*
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Phenethylamines / urine*
  • Phenylacetates / urine*
  • Phenylalanine / urine*
  • Reference Values
  • Tyrosine / urine*


  • Phenethylamines
  • Phenylacetates
  • phenethylamine
  • Tyrosine
  • Phenylalanine
  • phenylacetic acid