Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid Fever

Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 15;50(2):241-6. doi: 10.1086/649541.


Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High-quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop vaccines that are immunogenic in infants after a single dose and that can be produced locally in countries of endemicity. The growing importance of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A in Asia is concerning. Antimicrobial resistance has sequentially emerged to traditional first-line drugs, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, posing patient treatment challenges. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. The availability of full genome sequences for S. enterica serotype Typhi and S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A confirms their place as monomorphic, human-adapted pathogens vulnerable to control measures if international efforts can be redoubled.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Paratyphoid Fever / drug therapy
  • Paratyphoid Fever / epidemiology*
  • Paratyphoid Fever / prevention & control
  • Typhoid Fever / drug therapy
  • Typhoid Fever / epidemiology*
  • Typhoid Fever / prevention & control