Genetic studies have shown that mutations of complement inhibitors such as membrane cofactor protein, Factors H, I, or B and C3 predispose patients to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Factor I is a circulating serine protease that inhibits complement by degrading C3b and up to now only a few mutations in the CFI gene have been characterized. In a large cohort of 202 patients with aHUS, we identified 23 patients carrying exonic mutations in CFI. Their overall clinical outcome was unfavorable, as half died or developed end-stage renal disease after their first syndrome episode. Eight patients with CFI mutations carried at least one additional known genetic risk factor for aHUS, such as a mutation in MCP, CFH, C3 or CFB; a compound heterozygous second mutation in CFI; or mutations in both the MCP and CFH genes. Five patients exhibited homozygous deletion of the Factor H-related protein 1 (CFHR-1) gene. Ten patients with aHUS had one mutation in their CFI gene (Factor I-aHUS), resulting in a quantitative or functional Factor I deficiency. Patients with a complete deletion of the CFHR-1 gene had a significantly higher risk of a bad prognosis compared with those with one Factor I mutation as their unique vulnerability feature. Our results emphasize the necessity of genetic screening for all susceptibility factors in patients with aHUS.