The adaptation of erythropoietin production to oxygen supply is determined by the abundance of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a regulation that is induced by a prolyl hydroxylase. To identify cells that express HIF subunits (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) and erythropoietin, we treated Sprague-Dawley rats with the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4497 for 6 h to induce HIF-dependent erythropoietin transcription. The kidneys were analyzed for colocalization of erythropoietin mRNA with HIF-1alpha and/or HIF-2alpha protein along with cell-specific identification markers. FG-4497 treatment strongly induced erythropoietin mRNA exclusively in cortical interstitial fibroblasts. Accumulation of HIF-2alpha was observed in these fibroblasts and in endothelial and glomerular cells, whereas HIF-1alpha was induced only in tubular epithelia. A large proportion (over 90% in the juxtamedullary cortex) of erythropoietin-expressing cells coexpressed HIF-2alpha. No colocalization of erythropoietin and HIF-1alpha was found. Hence, we conclude that in the adult kidney, HIF-2alpha and erythropoietin mRNA colocalize only in cortical interstitial fibroblasts, which makes them the key cell type for renal erythropoietin synthesis as regulated by HIF-2alpha.