3D compressed sensing for highly accelerated hyperpolarized (13)C MRSI with in vivo applications to transgenic mouse models of cancer

Magn Reson Med. 2010 Feb;63(2):312-21. doi: 10.1002/mrm.22233.


High polarization of nuclear spins in liquid state through hyperpolarized technology utilizing dynamic nuclear polarization has enabled the direct monitoring of (13)C metabolites in vivo at a high signal-to-noise ratio. Acquisition time limitations due to T(1) decay of the hyperpolarized signal require accelerated imaging methods, such as compressed sensing, for optimal speed and spatial coverage. In this paper, the design and testing of a new echo-planar (13)C three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) compressed sensing sequence is presented. The sequence provides up to a factor of 7.53 in acceleration with minimal reconstruction artifacts. The key to the design is employing x and y gradient blips during a fly-back readout to pseudorandomly undersample k(f)-k(x)-k(y) space. The design was validated in simulations and phantom experiments where the limits of undersampling and the effects of noise on the compressed sensing nonlinear reconstruction were tested. Finally, this new pulse sequence was applied in vivo in preclinical studies involving transgenic prostate cancer and transgenic liver cancer murine models to obtain much higher spatial and temporal resolution than possible with conventional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging methods.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Carbon Isotopes / analysis
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Carbon Isotopes