Hepatic metabolism of cholesterol in Crohn's disease. Effect of partial resection of ileum

Gastroenterology. 1991 Apr;100(4):1046-53. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(91)90281-o.

Abstract

To study cholesterol metabolism in Crohn's disease and especially the effect of ileum resection, liver biopsy specimens were obtained from patients undergoing partial ileal resection because of Crohn's disease (n = 17) and patients with Crohn's colitis undergoing colectomy (n = 3). Gallstone-free patients (n = 16) undergoing cholecystectomy because of adenomyomas or polyps of the gallbladder served as controls. The mean levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity, rate-determining enzymes in bile acid, and cholesterol synthesis, respectively, were twofold to threefold higher in the ileum-resected patients than in the controls. Significant positive correlations were obtained between length of resected ileum and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Provided patients who had received total parenteral nutrition preoperatively were excluded from analysis, a significant correlation was also observed between length of resected ileum and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity. Significant positive correlations were also obtained between length of resected ileum and serum levels of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol (a marker for bile acid biosynthesis) and lathosterol (a marker for cholesterol synthesis). The plasma levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were negatively correlated to the length of resected ileum. The expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein-receptor binding activity was determined in five of the patients and in three of the controls. A significant positive correlation was observed between 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and low-density lipoprotein-receptor binding activity. The results show that malabsorption of bile acids leads to parallel stimulation of cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol degradation, and low-density lipoprotein-receptor expression in human liver. The resulting effect in the present patients was a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bile Acids and Salts / chemistry
  • Cholesterol / biosynthesis
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Coenzyme A / metabolism
  • Colectomy
  • Crohn Disease / enzymology
  • Crohn Disease / metabolism*
  • Crohn Disease / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ileum / surgery*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Receptors, LDL / metabolism

Substances

  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Receptors, LDL
  • Cholesterol
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Coenzyme A