Background: Leptin and adiponectin are hormones secreted by adipose tissue, and both hormones are candidate intermediaries between adipose tissue and overweight-related diseases. So far, no prospective study has been published where the independent effects of these two hormones on the development of hypertension have been directly compared. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin and new-onset hypertension in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS).
Methods: In a prospective study design, we examined new-onset hypertension in 620 women and 300 men who were normotensive in the third CCHS examination, which was performed in 1991-1994.
Results: Between the third and the fourth CCHS examination, which was performed in 2001-2003, 254 had developed hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or = 140 mm Hg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or = 90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fibrinogen, and glucose, and with leptin and adiponectin included in the same model, leptin was significantly associated with new-onset hypertension with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.28 (1.08-1.53; P < 0.005) for 1 s.d. higher level of log-transformed leptin, whereas adiponectin was not significantly associated with new-onset hypertension having an odds ratio of 1.02 (0.84-1.24; P = 0.83) for 1 s.d. higher level of log-transformed adiponectin.
Conclusions: In the CCHS, leptin, but not adiponectin, was a significant independent predictor of new-onset hypertension.